The Presocratic Philosophers and Socrates
Socrates died for his beliefs and this set him apart from all other philosophers that preceded him. He changed the course of Greek philosophy1.
In a later blog, I will discuss the influence of the Presocratic philosophers. For now it is important to know that they looked for explanations of things that went beyond the explanations provided by Greek mythology. They never denied the existence of the gods. They did however described a world where the gods weren’t directly responsible for everything, even though they still governed the affairs of men.2 This is the idea of secondary causality.3
They tended to focus on natural philosophy or what today we call science, and emphasized a naturalistic explanation of things. In addition, they also made progress in mathematics and meteorology. But their lack of instrumentation (such as telescopes and microscopes) meant that they could only go so far. Science would not make any significant headway until over 2000 years later.4
Socrates was similar to the Presocratics in that he looked for explanations that went beyond those provided by mythology. Like them, he stressed using the intellect to figure these things out. His emphasis differed, however, in that he stressed the moral component of philosophy and the idea of the development of virtue and piety. For example, Plato’s dialogue, Meno, is an account of a dialogue where Socrates asks for a definition of virtue and wonders if virtue can be taught. Similarly, as I mentioned in a previous blog, Euthyphro deals with the question of piety.
Socrates Put on Trial
But what primarily set Socrates apart from all of the philosophers that came before him was that he was put on trial and executed for his beliefs. I don’t think that it was the intention of the authorities to ever put Socrates on trial and make a public spectacle of him by either exiling him or executing him. They announced the trial months in advance with a wink and a nod, as if telling Socrates that he could leave the city quietly. The last thing that they wanted was a martyr on their hands. I think that it probably shocked them and rattled the entire city, when he not only showed up to his trial, but came with a resolution to die if necessary.
He fearlessly faced his accusers with the utmost integrity. This is the last thing that they wanted because it made them look like fools in front of the whole city. By doing this one act, he exposed them for who they really were and destroyed the ideological grip that they had on the citizens of Athens. In making his defense, Socrates in effect put the establishment on trial. He thus cleared the way for his brightest student named Plato to carry forward his legacy. (More about Socrates’ legacy later.)
Socrates in Prison
Plato’s dialogue Crito is an interesting read. After Socrates’ trial, he was put in prison for a month.5 He had to await execution because, under Athenian law, no executions were allowed to take place while the state galley was gone. It would sail on its annual religious mission to the small island of Delos in the Aegean Sea. This island was sacred to Apollo. The dialogue of Crito opens with Socrates’s friend Crito visiting him in prison because the state galley had just arrived. Crito tells Socrates that his friends have devised a plan for his escape and tries to persuade him one last time to leave Athens. Plato hints in the dialogue that the city authorities would like nothing more than for him to leave, since Socrates’ execution would be egg on their faces. Not to mention the fact that, despite being an irritant to many, he had actually built quite a popular following among the youth who were also tired of the establishment.
Socrates refused to leave. He could have avoided his trial and his execution. He had numerous chances, but he decided to stay and stand on his principles despite the cost. As mentioned above, by doing this he changed the course of philosophy in the West and prepared the way for Plato and Aristotle.
To stand for the truth means to be willing to give one’s life if necessary. Socrates’ example inspired many to do this for good and not so good causes. In post 5, we see a negative example in how the extremely talented Neoclassical French painter Jacques-Louis David motivated the radical Jacobins to overthrow the established order of monarchy and Catholic church and kill King Louis XVI in a bloody revolution.6 There are also have positive examples of people throughout history who sacrificed their lives for noble causes. We are coming to a time in the West where it is a very real possibility that some of us may have to sacrifice our lives for the truth. We can take Socrates’ example to heart.
Addendum: September 2021
I am writing this addendum in September of 2021. From when I originally wrote this post until now, it appears that the West, especially the Anglosphere, is sinking ever further into darkness. What is remarkable to me is how we have come full circle and have arrived back to the time of Socrates. When we read his story, we find it amazing that he was executed for simply asking questions.
But yet here we are. Aside from disagreeing with the party line which is bad enough, we cannot even question the policies of the powers that be lest we be impugned and cancelled from society. And this appears to be moving quickly from being cancelled to being killed – for simply questioning. I never thought that we would see this in the West. Socrates’ example becomes even more relevant to us today than it was just a few years ago. Because of this, we can draw courage (a bad word these day since fear is the new virtue) from his example and choose to pursue the truth despite the consequences.
The following quotes of Socrates are taken from the dialogue Crito:
“Let it be then, Crito, and let us act in this way, since this is the way God is leading us.”7
“But why, my dear Crito, should we care about the opinion of the many?“8
“For anyone who destroys the laws could easily be thought to corrupt the young and the ignorant.”9
“Nor must one when wronged, inflict wrong in return as the majority believe, since one must never do wrong.”10
Finally, consider the following question:
How do you think that philosophical history would be different if Socrates just went quietly away to exile rather than dying for the truth? Please leave a comment below. Thank you!
- Wilson, Emily, “The Death of Socrates,” Wall Street Journal online, November 24, 2007, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB119559033449699536
- Curd, Patricia, “Presocratic Philosophy”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2020 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2020/entries/presocratics.
- Aquinas 101, The Thomistic Institute, “Lesson 20: Primary and Secondary Causality,” https://aquinas101.thomisticinstitute.org/principle-and-secondary-causality
- Jones, E. Michael, Logos, The Trinity, Luther, and Hegel, Culture Wars website, Audio Interview, https://culturewars.com/podcasts/logos-the-trinity-luther-and-hegel
- Plato, Five Dialogues, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo, second ed., Translated by G.M.A. Grube, Revised by John M. Cooper, p. 45, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., Indianapolis/Cambridge, 2002
- McMullen, Roy Donald. “Jacques-Louis David”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 25 Dec. 2020, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Jacques-Louis-David-French-painter.
- Plato, Five Dialogues, Crito, second ed., 54e, p. 57
- Plato, Five Dialogues, Crito, second ed., 44c, p. 47
- Plato, Five Dialogues, Crito, second ed., 53c, p. 56
- Plato, Five Dialogues, Crito, second ed., 49b, p. 52
Bibliography and Sources:
Coppleston, S.J., Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Book One, An Image Book, Doubleday, New York, 1985
Grayling, A.C., The History of Philosophy, Penguin Press, New York, 2019
Hughes, Bettany, The Hemlock Cup: Socrates, Athens and the Search for the Good Life Paperback – Illustrated, Vintage Publishers, 2012, New York City
Plato, Five Dialogues, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo, second ed., Translated by G.M.A. Grube, Revised by John M. Cooper, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., Indianapolis/Cambridge, 2002
Plato, The Last Days of Socrates, Revised Ed., Harold Tarrant (Editor, Translator, Introduction) and Hugh Tredennick (Translator), Penguin Classics, New York, 2003
Voegelin, Eric, Order and History, Vol. 2: The World of the Polis, classic reprint hardcover, Forgotten Books Publishers, London, 2018
Wilson, Emily, The Death of Socrates, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2007
Xenophon, Conversations of Socrates, Waterfield, Robin H, Editor and Translator; Tedennick, Hugh, Translator, Penguin Classics, Ney York, Revised ed., 1990