26. Anaximander of Miletus

Anaximander of Miletus was a Presocratic philosopher who said that the apeiron was the arche of the universe
Anaximander Holding a Sundial, Ancient Roman Mosaic, 3rd Century AD

Anaximander, a student of Thales, was known for wearing ostentatious clothes.1 Like Thales, he was a multifaceted character. He was the first person to make a map of the world and thus was the first geographer. He also speculated that the earth was free-floating in space and not suspended by anything, whereas Thales said that it rested on water. He is said to have predicted an earthquake, something that modern science still cannot do.2

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25. Thales of Miletus and Water

Thales of Miletus said that water was the basic element of the universe.
Thales of Miletus

As the story goes, Thales of Miletus, an astronomer among many other things, was walking along, gazing at the stars, not watching where he was going, when he fell into a well.1 A story like that is stereotypical of a philosopher who has his mind so set on lofty ideas, he loses touch with earthly things. With Thales, nothing could be further from the truth. 

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24. The Ionian Enlightenment

These Greek ruins in Ionia signify the Ionian Enlightenment and the birth of Greek philosophy.
Ancient Greek City of Ionia

The Greek Dark Ages commenced with the fall of Troy in the 12th century.1 It continued for several centuries until a ray of light finally dawned in the region of Ionia in western Asia Minor in the eighth and seven centuries BC.2 This flourishing of art and culture is known as the Ionian Enlightenment or the Ionian Renaissance. The Dark Ages continued in the rest of the Greek territories for a while longer. Why was Ionia different?

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23. Hesiod’s Theogony, from Mythology to Metaphysics

This is a mosaic of Hesiod who believed that the gods were the original principle of the universe.
Mosaic of Greek Poet Hesiod, 3rd Century A.D., Germany

“Chaos was first of all, but next appeared Broad-Bosomed Earth.”

-Hesiod from Theogony

Hesiod’s Theogony was monumental in advancing Greek thinking because its subject matter was no less than the origin of the universe.1 It is the most complete surviving Greek account of the creation of the universe. Hesiod described not only how the universe came into being, but he also gave an account of the birth of the gods. His gods were not transcendent – they were a part of the universe. They were anthropomorphic, having all of the characteristics of humans, except for one important factor – they were immortal. Like Homer, Hesiod represents the transition from myth to metaphysics.2

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22. Homer, from Mythology to Metaphysics

The Iliad marks the transformation from Mythology to Metaphysics as we see here Achilles in battle.
Achilles in Battle, by Alice and Martin Provensen, mid 20th Century

“My mother Thetis tells me that there are two ways in which I may meet my end. If I stay and fight, I shall not return alive, but my name will live forever; whereas if I go home my name will die, but it will be long ere death shall take me.”1

-The Iliad, Achilles talking to Odysseus

Homer’s mythology, like much mythology of the ancient world, was an attempt to explain reality through the interaction between the gods and between the gods and men. But unlike other mythologies, say, of the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, Homer takes a less superstitious approach. Rather, his mythology is more human than divine – his gods are all too human, complete with human weaknesses and shortcomings.2 Also, his gods have less control since they, too are subject to fate just like humans. With Homer, we see the cosmological myth is starting to fade. For even thought The Iliad is full of gods, Homer presents a more psychological rather than cosmological explanation of things. As E. Michael Jones states in Logos Rising, “There is nothing divine about the gods of The Iliad.”3 In this respect, with Homer, we start to see the beginning of the transition from myth to metaphysics.4

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21. The Purpose of History

This picture takes place at the Vatican in Rom and shows the progression of history in western civilization

Revelation occurs at the interface between God’s transcendence and His immanence.

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20. Abraham, Justified by Faith and Works

This is a painting showing Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac and the angel stopping him by grabbing his hand.
Sacrifice of Isaac, Caravaggio, 1603, Baroque

There is a grand unity to the Bible. The story of Abraham itself can seem confusing because there are so many moving parts to it. But the story of Abraham fits together as a unified whole around the theme of covenant. Below is the outline that I will use to discuss the Abrahamic covenant so that hopefully it makes more sense as you grasp the big picture of this remarkable story.

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19. Abraham and the Sacrifice of Isaac

Here is a painting of the angle stopping Abraham from sacrificing his son Isaac. Abraham was the father of faith.
The Sacrifice of Isaac, Domenichino, 1626, Baroque Classicism 

There is a grand unity to the Bible. The story of Abraham itself can seem confusing because there are so many moving parts to it. But the story of Abraham fits together as a unified whole around the theme of covenant. Below is the outline that I will use to discuss the Abrahamic covenant so that hopefully it makes more sense as you grasp the big picture of this remarkable story.

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18. Abraham and the Covenant

This is an icon of Abraham and Sarah that represents the Covenant and  Abraham as the father of faith.
Icon of Abraham and Sarah

There is a grand unity to the Bible. The story of Abraham itself can seem confusing because there are so many moving parts to it. But the story of Abraham fits together as a unified whole around the theme of covenant. Below is the outline that I will use to discuss the Abrahamic covenant so that hopefully it makes more sense as you grasp the big picture of this remarkable story. Below is a summary of the Abrahamic Covenant up to this point in our story:1

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17. Abraham, Blessing of All Nations

This is a picture of the Milky Way illustrating the promise of God to Abraham that he would make his descendants as numerous as the stars in the heavens.
 

After the blessing by Melchizedek, God appeared to Abraham in a vision and said: 

“Do not be afraid, Abram, I am your shield, your reward shall be very great.” 

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