33. Heraclitus and Logos

Heraclitus thinks about the logos
Heraclitus, by Dutch Painter Johannes Moreelse, 1630

Heraclitus’ Damascus Road Experience

As portrayed above, Heraclitus is an aged and weary man as compared with the resolute and determined Heraclitus in the previous post. His hands are clasped and his head is bowed as if in prayer. He seems to be either meditating as he awaits some profound insight or resigning himself to the pessimistic fate of humanity.

In the book of Acts, St. Paul was humbled by a divine voice and a bright light on the road to Damascus.1 But Heraclitus encountered divinity through a glass, darkly, as he heard the voice of the logos speak to him from within.

The Logos Speaks to Heraclitus

Somehow and somewhere, Heraclitus heard the logos speak. And afterward, Heraclitus did not speak his own words but instead what he heard from the logos. He spoke not as a condescending academic, but rather as an authoritative, yet humbled prophet.

Heraclitus proclaimed in a stark and astonishing comment:

“Listening not to me, but to the logos…”2

He spoke as one under authority, and yet authoritatively. The verb used here has the implications of not just hearing, but obeying as well. Heraclitus is like a parent who says to his children with all seriousness, “Listen!” Something important is always sure to follow. What was that important thing?

Everything is One and the One is Everything

It was a profound metaphysical truth:

“To say the same [as the logos] is the Wise thing: Everything is one.”3

He literally says, “There is a wise thing to agree with – one : everything.”

This can even be put in the form of one of Heraclitus’ favorite figures, the chiasmus:

One : Everything :: Everything : One

And why is the wisdom for humanity? Simply because, as the old saying goes, we can’t see the forest for the trees. Since we are such a small and finite part of the universe, we tend to see things in our little part of the world, and not the entire picture. According to the logos, wisdom lies in understanding that there is a grand unity to the cosmos.

Parmenides, the next of the Presocratics we will look at, also stressed the concept of the “one,” but his perspective was that there is only the one. There are no such things as things for Parmenides – just a singularity.4 Any particulars are illusory. Heraclitus, or I should say the logos, puts the brakes on that. For him, there are the one and the many.

The One and the Many

Another way of stating the above is, “out of everything, one; out of one, everything.”

According to Heraclitus, the logos wants us to see that, despite the multiplicity of things and phenomena that we find in the cosmos, there is a profound unity or oneness that binds everything together. All things are unified without losing their distinct individuality or thingness.

All of the Presocratic philosophers wrestled with the relationship between the one and the many. In fact, this is the fundamental problem in philosophy that needs to be solved if the universe is to ultimately make sense. The fact that the Presocratics even recognized this as a problem in the first place is remarkable and constitutes a big leap forward in philosphical thought. This is why each of the Presocratics tried to find that arche, the unifying principle out of which everything else originated.

The problem is that if we only see the individual components to the universe, then we lose continuity between the parts and the universe becomes unintelligible. On the other hand, if we focus on the whole, the individual parts lose their distinctiveness and become unrecognizable.

The Presocratics eventually hit a wall because they couldn’t transcend the material universe in order to find the unifying principle. Plato tried to transcend this material barrier with his theory of Forms. Aristotle did the same with his Four Causes, thus moving the ball down the field significantly further.

With the move away from metaphysics in the modern age, this problem was eventually shelved altogether. It still remains, I think, the fundamental problem to be solved in philosophy. The answer ultimately lies in the Trinity where there is perfect harmony between the One and the many, but translating that philosophically is another matter altogether – more on that later.

Logos as the Key Word of Western Civilization

Logos is Heraclitus’ key word. The word logos means “word.” It is the key word for Heraclitus. And because of Heraclitus’ impact, it is the key word of the Western philosophical tradition.

In post 22 on Homer, I wrote about the transformation from the Iliad to the Odyssey from a society based on warfare and violence to one based on reason and virtue. Reason and dialogue took the place of the glory of war. Without this transformation, it is impossible for a society to advance and civilization to flourish.

With the Ionian Enlightenment, this was codified in what eventually became the Greek city-state. Wisdom emanates from the deity and finds its expression in the body politic. Another way of looking at this is that philosophy shapes and forms our politics, and philosophy is shaped and formed by our theology or our view of God. Theology corresponds to the Father, philosophy the Son, and the body politic, as the outworking of the two, the Holy Spirit.

It was this establishment of reason and dialogue (dialogue from the Greek words dia, which means “through,” and logos, which means “word or speech”) that made philosophy possible. Dialogue, the inculcation of logos in human society, also made the advancement of civilization possible.

The Logos Is Both Transcendent and Immanent

This same dialogue that provided the impetus for growth and change within the polis and philosophy now spoke as the logos from outside and above to Heraclitus. The logos was both transcendent and immanent as was revealed to Heraclitus:

“The Wise is separated from everything.”5

“One thing is the Wise – to understand the maxim by which the thunderbolt steers all things.”6

What is “the thunderbolt”? Well, of course, it is fire, Heraclitus’ arche, that is the universal principle. This fire, as we saw in the previous post, moves and guides all things. It is no accident that he uses the imagery of a thunderbolt, for this calls to mind Zeus. This is not to be taken literally, but as a metaphor.

For as Zeus launches his thunderbolts into the world, so too the logos does its work by and through its universal principle – fire.

The important thing is that the logos stands above and outside of the universe and does its work within the universe, being both transcendent and immanent, through the arche of fire.

Heraclitus is one of the most important figures in the history of philosophical thought.

First of all, he took the amorphous concept of logos, which originally just meant “word” or “speech,” and gave it breadth and depth philosophically. This richness paved the way for it to be used in a deep theological way by Christian theologians.

Secondly, he clarified the fundamental problem in philosophy – that of the relationship between the one and the many. It is the solving of this problem that carries with it many practical applications. For example, societies that emphasize diversity at the expense of unity end up fragmenting. Societies that emphasize unity at the expense of diversity end up becoming rigidly conformist or even totalitarian.

And finally, he got us thinking about the universal principle or deity of the universe as both transcendent and immanent. This is a tension that will again show up in Christian thought and Christian theology.

Please see my next post for some closing thoughts on Heraclitus and the logos before we move on to Parmenides, another heavyweight of the Presocratics.

“Wisdom is the oneness of mind that guides and permeates all things.”

“Humankind does not have such insights; the divine has them.

-Heraclitus

What do you find most intriguing about this post? Please leave a comment below. Thank you!

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 9:1-9
  2. Brann, Eva, The Logos of Heraclitus, p. 15, Paul Day Books, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011
  3. Brann, Eva, The Logos of Heraclitus, p. 15-17
  4. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Parmenides,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 14 Jun. 2017, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Parmenides-Greek-philosopher
  5. Brann, Eva, The Logos of Heraclitus, p. 67
  6. Brann, Eva, The Logos of Heraclitus, p. 65

Bibliography and Sources:

Aristotle, On the Soul, translated by Fred D. Miller, Jr., Oxford University Press, Oxford World Classics, Oxford, England, 2018

Aristotle, The Metaphysics. Translated by Hugh Lawson-Tancred, Penguin Books, New York, 2004

Aristotle, Physics, David Bostock, author, translated by Robin Waterfield, 1st ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 2008

Brann, Eva, The Logos of Heraclitus, Paul Day Books, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011

Copleston, Frederick, A History of Philosophy, Book 1, Image Press, Cicero, N.Y., 1981

Hollis, Christopher, The Noble Castle, Longmans, Green and Co., London, New York, Toronto, 1941

Internet Sources:

McCabe, M.M.; Adamson, Peter, Lecture 5 “Old Man River: Heraclitus,” History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps, King’s College, London, Dec. 28, 2010, https://historyofphilosophy.net/xenophanes

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