Let us now leave 5th century B.C. Athens, Greece and take a trip back in time 1600 years to the city of Ur in Mesopotamia. A distance of 1400 miles separates the two cities. We leave the mild Mediterranean climate and the sophisticated life of the Athenians with their stately marble temples and travel to a semiarid climate in a much more rugged part of the world. As you can see from the map below, Ur was located in what is today southern Iraq.Continue reading “10. Discover Abraham’s Birthplace of the Ancient City of Ur”
9. Socrates and Jesus Compared
As we examine the life and impact of Socrates, we can see that there are many similarities between Jesus and Socrates. It’s not that the two men were on an equal plane, for Jesus is the Son of God and Socrates was a mere man. St. Paul states in his Epistle to the Colossians that “in Christ is hidden all of the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.” So if Socrates was wise, and Christ is the embodiment of all wisdom, then Socrates must have derived his wisdom from Christ.Continue reading “9. Socrates and Jesus Compared”
8. Socrates and the Unexamined Life
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”1-Plato’s Apology, 38a
This now famous line, which Socrates spoke at his trial, has rippled throughout Western Civilization. If I could sum up Socrates’ legacy in one maxim, it would be this quote. It is imperative that we know ourselves and by extension the reason why we are here.
Socrates may have gotten this idea from the phrase, “know thyself (γνῶθι σεαυτόν), that was inscribed on the temple of Delphi.2 Or he may have first learned it by reading the works of Heraclitus. Regardless, the important thing is that he burned this idea of self-examination into the collective conscience of Western Civilization by proclaiming it as a non-negotiable as he faced death by execution.
The famous inscription on the Temple of Delphi was more than a maxim, it was a warning for those who wished to be initiated into the higher mysteries of the divine nature. One could not proceed into the higher mysteries without a proper self-understanding. Knowing thyself then was the doorway into union with the divine. And union with the divine was the catalyst through which the mysteries of the universe, both divine and human, would eventually unfold.Continue reading “8. Socrates and the Unexamined Life”
7. Socrates a Philosopher of Virtue and Truth
What is the legacy of Socrates? For not leaving any writings behind, he had a tremendous impact on those who followed him1.Continue reading “7. Socrates a Philosopher of Virtue and Truth”
6. Socrates, Martyr for the Truth
The Presocratic Philosophers and Socrates
Socrates died for his beliefs and this set him apart from all other philosophers that preceded him. He changed the course of Greek philosophy1.Continue reading “6. Socrates, Martyr for the Truth”
5. Socrates an Ambassador of Truth to Athens
Previously, I discussed how Socrates was convicted of “corrupting the youth” and “impiety.”1 He was accused of impiety because he tried to expand the meaning of piety beyond mere ceremony into intellectual understanding and the development of virtue. What good is honoring the gods if you are ignorant of what you are doing and you are, in fact, a rotten person?Continue reading “5. Socrates an Ambassador of Truth to Athens”
4. Socrates the Humble Revolutionary
Socrates Upsets the Status Quo
In the previous post, we saw that there were real and contrived reasons for why Socrates was brought to trial. Even though he was implicated in support of the previous tyrannical regime, he probably would have been fine if he had kept his head down and stayed under the radar. But he did just the opposite.Continue reading “4. Socrates the Humble Revolutionary”
3. Socrates the Wisest Man in Athens
Why was Socrates executed? He was tried in front of 501 of his Athenian peers who, acting as judge and jury, declared him guilty and sentenced him to death.1Continue reading “3. Socrates the Wisest Man in Athens”
2. Socrates’ Death and the Triumph of Reason
On the appointed day of his death, Socrates, at 70 years old, is in a jail in Athens, Greece. His friends and family are allowed to see him. Socrates calmly discusses matters of the afterlife before drinking the hemlock.Continue reading “2. Socrates’ Death and the Triumph of Reason”
1. The Harmony and Tension Between Faith and Reason
“What does Jerusalem have to do with Athens?
-Tertullian, Church Father (155A.D.-220A.D.)
After his 51 A.D. encounter with the Greek philosophers at the Areopagus, the Apostle Paul would probably have answered the above question with, “Not much.” Up until this time, Hebrew faith and Greek philosophy had been developing on parallel paths. It seems as though they had nothing in common. After all, the Greeks were the philosophical people and the Jews were the people of faith. Obviously, this is an oversimplification, but you get the point.
But here was the one chance for the two to come together – faith and reason in tandem. The Apostle Paul would bring the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the fulfillment of the Jewish Scriptures to the Greeks, the primary purveyors of philosophical ideas in the ancient world. With the meeting of the two, faith would have the philosophical language by which to express itself, and reason would have the revelation it needed in order to reason rightly.
Well, it didn’t quite happen that way. Paul preached on the resurrection of Jesus Christ, a central tenant of the Christian faith, and received a tepid response at best. According to the account in Acts 17, when Paul mentioned the resurrection, some began to scoff at him while others asked him to return so that they could hear more. He ultimately left with only a smattering of converts. What happened?Continue reading “1. The Harmony and Tension Between Faith and Reason”